45C8 Carbon steels have carbon as the key alloying element in their composition. They also contain up to 0.4% silicon and 1.2% manganese. In addition, residual elements such as copper, molybdenum, aluminum, chromium, and nickel are present in these steels.
45C8 steel grade round bar, steel plate, flat and square is used for axles, bolts, forged connecting rods, crankshafts, torsion bars, light gears, guide rods, screws, forgings, wheel tyres, shafts, sickles, axes, knives, woodworking drills, hammers, etc.
Addition to other grades:
MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN19, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, OHNS, HCHCR, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, M2, M35, M42, 2714, SKD-11, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM 420, ASTM SA-36, ASTM SA-105, SAE 1018, SAE 1020, SAE 4140, SAE 8620, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C20, C35, C40, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE 52100, S40C, S355J2G3.
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The following table shows the chemical composition of 45C8 steel:
|Tensile strength Ultimate||660 MPa||95700 psi|
|Tensile strength Yield||560 MPa||81200 psi|
|Bulk modulus (typical for steels)||140 GPa||20300 ksi|
|Shear modulus (typical for steels)||80 GPa||11600 ksi|
|Elastic modulus||190 – 210 GPa||19700- 30458 ksi|
|Poisson’s ratio||0.27 -0.30||0.27 – 0.30|
|Elongation at break (in 50 mm)||0.1||0.1|
|Reduction of area||0.4||0.4|
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness)||219||219|
|Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness)||92||92|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only)||13||13|
|Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness)||207||207|
|Machinability (based on AISI 1212 steel. as 100 machinabilities)||55||55|
820 – 860°C/Water, Oil
550 – 660°C/air
|Density||7.85 g/cm3||0.284 lb/in³|
|Thermal expansion co-efficient||11 µm/m°C||6.11 µin/in°F|
|Thermal conductivity||49.8 W/mK||346 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
1100 – 850°C/air
Normalizing:840 – 880°C
680 – 710°C/furnace
60 – 28
When welding is completed allow components to cool to 180°C before tempering
Heat to 620 – 650°C at a maximum heating rate of 100°C/hr or 6000/thickness (mm) °C/hr, whichever is smaller. Temper for 2 hours. Cool to 200°C at a controlled cooling rate of 100°C/hr maximum. Cool to room temperature in still air. In very highly restrained conditions, it may be necessary to consider an intermediate, lower temperature stress relief treatment.
Boost the preheat to 250°C and hold for 4 hours minimum.
If it is not convenient to hold the component at an intermediate temperature after welding, pending heating for tempering, the following alternative procedures (below) could be applied. However, if restraint is very high this alternative procedure may not prevent the occurrence of hydrogen-induced cracking. Alternative procedure:
Cool to room temperature at a maximum rate of 50°C/hr.
Temper when convenient.
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